What is 5G Technology? Everything You Need to Know About 5G

5G technology

What is 5G technology?

If you are reading this article you definitely know about the term like 3G, 4G etc, they all are the Generation of Mobile Network Technology, same as 5G is the 5th generation mobile network technology.

5G is a new kind of network that can connect almost everyone and everything including machines, objects, and devices.

5G is a wireless technology that carries high data speeds (up to Gbps range) with more reliability. 5G also gives an enormous area of network capacity and long time availability which will give us a more smooth user experience.

How fast is 5G?

At the start when this 5G technology arrived the speed was in the range from 50 Mbps to over 2 Gbps. After some time on July 3, 2019, mmWave had a top speed of 1.8 Gbit/s on AT&T’s 5G network. “mmWave” is known as “millimetre wave”. it is a short range, high-frequency network technology is in 5G.

Near future, 5G technology can deliver peak data rates up to 20 Gbps based on IMT (International Mobile Telecommunications) requirements.

But 5G is not just about speed, it’s also about network capacity and smooth user experience and mmWave will help here.

5G also has a lower latency which means they design it to process a very high volume of data with a minimal delay that makes data rate very consistent even if you are switching the cell (geographic area covered by a network station).

Do I need to buy an extra phone if I want 5G?

Yes, you will need to buy a new smartphone that supports 5G. Then only you will use the 5G network.

There are several new smartphones available that will support 5G and also have multiple carriers across the world support the 5G wireless network system.

According to Qualcomm, the phone which will be powered by Snapdragon X55 or Snapdragon X60 Modem-RF System is compatible for a 5G network. Find Snapdragon 5G Phones.

According to Wikipedia the first-ever all-5G smartphone Samsung Galaxy S20  released on March 6, 2020. The 5G phones are expensive in comparison with 4G.

How does 5G work?

5G technology is also working with a cell sited system that divides the geographical area into sectors and sends encoded signals(data) through radio waves. The cell is connected to the main network for both wired or wireless connection.

5G is OFDM-based (Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing) which is like the encoding technique that 4G LTE uses.

5G transforms bytes of data units over the air that is called 5G New Radio interface(RI). This new digital technology utilises much higher radio frequencies around 28 gigahertz as compared to 2500 megahertz for 4G. That can generate more data over the air with faster speed and lower latency.

how 5g works

how 5g works | Image by emfexplained

5G uses millimetre Posts wave spectrum that allows more devices to be used within the same geographic area. Previously, 4G Network could operate about 3500 to 4200 devices per square kilometre but now 5G technology can support around one million per square kilometre. This can help you to explore more YouTube streaming, unlimited voice calls with no break-off.

5G also uses a new technology called Massive MIMO (multiple inputs multiple outputs). 5G NR (New Radio) massive MIMO technology is one of the crucial keys to unlocking these 5G user experiences.

To better understand, think about the pipeline in which data is flowing between the base station (mobile tower) and the phone on a mobile network.

As we know that one antenna is on the base station and one is on the phone that will make follow of data (signal).

Now, in the MIMO system, we installed more antennas on either side with proper spatial separation, they create multiple pipelines in the space between the phone and the base station.

That generates multiple paths for more data to travel between the base station antenna and mobile antenna.

The main profit of this solution to a user is in continuous movement and changes in the surrounding environment.

Will 5g be dangerous?

Nowadays, a common question comes to your mind that “is 5G harmful” or “is 5G dangerous to birds” The latest cellular technology, 5G, works with millimetre waves. Given limited reach, 5G technology needs cell antennas every 100 to 200 meters, exposing many people within millimetre wave radiation.

5G also uses active antennas -capable of beam-forming called massive multiple inputs and outputs or massive MIMO which pose unique challenges for measuring exposures.

Human skin and surface layers of the cornea can absorb Millimetre waves.

Short-term exposure can have unfavourable physiological effects in the peripheral nervous system, the immune system and the cardiovascular system.

According to researchers, long-term exposure may pose health risks to the skin like melanoma, in the eyes like ocular melanoma and on the testes sterility.

International Commission on Non‐Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), the Germany-based scientific body that estimates the health risks of radio broadcasts, released new guidelines for millimetre-wave 5G, the most high-frequency version of the telecommunications standard.

5G which is in the US and Europe have output levels significantly below the new maximum levels.

Even with earlier mobile standards, a large community of sceptics have a fear of safety. 5G is going to the same phase.

Previous generations of mobile networks (1g 2g 3g 4g)

1G – Mobile Voice Calls

1G was invented in 1987 by Telecom (Telstra), Australia received its first cellular mobile phone network. 1G completely depends on the Analog system. 1G phones generally had poor battery life and poor voice quality with less security.

2G – Voice Calls and SMS

The major upgrade from 1g to 2g is that 1G networks are Analog, while 2G networks are digital. 2G cellular networks were launched on the GSM standard in Finland by Radiolinja (now part of Elisa Oyj) in 1991. 2G networks allow multiple users on a single channel via multiplexing. During 2G Cellular phones are used for data also along with the voice.

3G – Web Browsing

The 3G standard utilises a new technology called UMTS. This network combines a 2G network with some new technology and protocols to deliver a significantly faster data rate.3G increases the efficiency of the frequency spectrum by compressing audio during a call, so more simultaneous calls can happen in the same frequency range.

4G – Video Consumption and Higher Data Speed

4G is a different technology as compared to 3G.it provides faster speed, high quality and high capacity to users with good security. It is lower the cost of voice and data services.

4G is possible with MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) and OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) technologies. WiMAX and LTE are the two important 4G standards. LTE (Long Term Evolution) is a series of upgrades to existing UMTS technology and will be rolled out on Telstra’s existing 1800MHz frequency band.

The maximum speed of a 4G network when the user is moving is from 100 Mbps to 1 Gbps.latency reduced to 100ms and significantly lower congestion. OFDM is a digital modulation in which a signal is split into severa-l narrowband channels at different frequencies.

What is 5G technology

1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G all led to 5G, which is invented to provide more connectivity than past generation networks. With high speeds, higher reliability and very low latency, 5G networks will give marvellous user experience.

4G vs 5G

To establish a comparison between 4G and 5G, you have to see different important factors. Some of them are really interesting and easy to understand.

The very first factor which is important to concern is the bandwidth of the 4G and 5G networks.5G network will provide over 1 Gbps whereas the 4G network provides 200 Mbps. Now you can see that there is a sizable difference in bandwidth in both 4G and 5G networks. The present 4G network is working up to 6GHz, on the other hand 5G network gives you a wide operating range i.e. 30 GHz to 300GHz.

The second factor which is again required for your attention is Latency. Here latency is the delay before a transfer of data follows instruction for its transfer. 5G will provide less than 10 milliseconds whereas 4G provides 20-30 milliseconds.

The third important factor is the coverage area. As we know that 4G has a grand coverage area even than in rural areas 3G network is more prominent than the 4G network. Similarly, the 5G network also does not work individually, it takes the support of 4G network to connect enormous cities to a compact town.

For the 5G network, the technology is to be used millimetre-wave (mmWave) technology. Millimetre-wave technology requires the deployment of lots of 5G nodes. Here several 5G nodes will be used to reduce blockage by walls as the waves are shorter.

The Fourth important factor is the average speed. 4G offers you an average speed of 25 Mbps on the other hand 5G will give you an average speed of 200 Mbps to 400 Mbps. You can clearly see the difference that 5G will provide you 16 times more average speed than the 4G network.

Why is 5G a game-changer?

5G is not mainly about getting faster but it’s for a more stable and secure connection. It’s about great services and experiences in every corner. 5G will improve your network connection.

You will feel great user experience when sharing videos from crowded areas, It will not buffer even with browsing high-quality videos.


The 5G network has features of ultra-fast internet, low latency and high average speed. You will not see a big difference in the establishment’s starting of a 5G network but you will experience a good internet speed as it is 10 times faster than past generation networks.

As the number of 5G nodes will be installed you will get excellent service in healthcare facilities. With a larger number of nodes, it is easy to track the patient position and its requirements.

This technology also helps in public security as tracking through several nodes is easy and possible.

Autonomous vehicles will also get great connectivity through 5G network.

At the last 5G network undoubtedly much faster and more reliable.

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Some FAQs

Will 5g be dangerous?

International Commission on Non‐Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), the Germany-based scientific body that estimates the health risks of radio broadcasts, released new guidelines for millimetre-wave 5G, the most high-frequency version of the telecommunications standard.

Which countries have banned 5g?

New Zealand, Japan, Australia, Taiwan and the U.S. have banned 5G and eliminate the company's products which can use 5G

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